Word studies: determinate and ought

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Word studies: determinate and ought

Postby bibleprotector » 27 May 2014, 17:59

Why does the King James Bible have "determinate" not “determined” at Acts 2:23?

The word “determined” (adjective) has meanings like (1) resolute, or (2) decided, settled, resolved.

“For to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done” (Acts 4:28).

Clearly, God decided beforehand, in other words, it is settled, unshakable. That is the quality and nature of God's plan.

Now, to Acts 2:23,

“Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain” (Acts 2:23).

If the word is being used as an adjective (which describes a noun), it means precisely limited, definite, distinct.

This means that God’s plan is precise and particular, it goes to the exact detail of God’s intention.
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The dictionary informs us of two words, one being "ought" (also spelt "aught") meaning, anything or a part of a thing, noun or adverb. The entry for "ought" lists it as meaning, in line with a moral standard, what is owed, expressing a moral duty, etc., a verb auxiliary.

These are two words, but are both spelt the same way in the King James Bible. Interestingly, both words are remarkably similar in their application, and if a common meaning can be defined for both usages, it would be that the word “ought” always means something measured to another standard, such as a part, a portion, a remainder, a particular thing, and is expressed in the negative, as in, less than that standard. This can be a moral standard, it can be a total number, it can be a debt amount required:

Ge 20:9 — particular point of full moral standard — not kept
Ge 34:7 — particular point of full moral standard — not kept
Ge 39:6 — any part of total of owned possessions — not all known
Ge 47:18 — any of total of owned possessions — no longer owned
Ex 5:8 — any one out of total quantity and quality — not to be reduced
Ex 5:11 — any one out of total quantity and quality — not to be reduced
Ex 5:19 — any one out of total quantity and quality — not to be reduced
Ex 12:46 — any part out of entire thing — not be reduced
Ex 22:14 — any item lent of all possessions — not reduced in quality when returned
Ex 29:34 — any particular of total items — none to remain
Le 4:2 — any particular moral standard — not kept
Le 4:27 — any particular moral standard — not kept
Le 11:25 — any particular of an entire thing — not to have any part
Le 19:6 — any part of an entire thing — none to remain
Le 25:14 (1) — any item of entire possessions, quality of sale — not to be sold unfairly
Le 25:14 (2) — any item of entire possessions, quality of purchase — not to be bought unfairly

There is no grounds to require a different word or spelling “aught” in some instances.

When we compare the use of the word "ought" with the simplified and imprecise usage of words in modern versions, the difference becomes clear:

A modern version might say at Mark 11:25,

"if ye have anything against any one"

Whereas the KJB says,

"if ye have ought against any"

There is a big difference between "anything" and "ought", because, as is illustrated above, "ought" does not just mean "anything", it means:

Measured to some absolute standard (God's Word), and any part required, not in line with it. (The English is pregnant with precise meaning!)

Thus, we are commanded to forgive under conditions, rather than to just forgive or absolute everyone of everything.

After all, Jesus himself said that there was an unpardonable sin, so we obviously are not commanded by God to forgive someone who is committing that sin, since He does not forgive that sin.

That aside, the modern version has no idea in the word "ought" of any kind of standard, or any concept of "owing", which is clearly present in the KJB wording.
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